"Bare is the back of the brotherless man."

Medical

Overview

Casualties are an inevitable consequence of battle, and dealing with them quickly and effectively is key to both the patients survival and the continued success of their unit in the field. This section details everything you need to know about dealing with casualties, as a regular Rifleman or a Corpsman.

Safety

It is paramount that casualties are moved to a safe position, out of the line of fire, where they can be assessed and treated without risking further injuries to or impeding the mobility of the remainder of their team. Riflemen should always assist the Corpsman as required, laying down covering fire, deploying smokes or helping to retrieve injured comrades.

Triage

Injuries can vary from the serious to the minor. Proper assessment of a patients injuries is necessary in order to ensure all casualties get the treatment they need without jeopardising the lives of others.

Rifleman will always be responsible for analysing their own medical condition and that of their comrades. Care must be taken not to overlook or "brush off" serious wounds as early treatment can reduce complications at a later point. Likewise, a Corpsman should also not be called for a minor cut or scrape. Corpsmen will also perform their own triage when receiving patients, and they must decide who to prioritise for further medical care based on the seriousness of their injuries.

Patients may be categorised in to one of four triage categories:

  • Immediate - Requires immediate medical attention to survive.
  • Delayed - Requires medical attention soon, but can wait until Immediate casualties are stabilized.
  • Minimal - Requires medical attention when all serious casualties are stabilized.
  • Expectant - Not expected to survive and treatment should be reserved for those more likely to survive.
Note that the triage categories listed here are for reference only and use of triage cards is not a requirement.

Evac

Serious casualties that can not be handled quickly by a rifleman should be evacuated to the Corpsman. The Corpsman has capabilities and equipment available to them that a rifleman does not. Casualties that need to be evacuated by vehicle should be moved to a safe location that is marked and communicated to the Platoon Sergeant.

Ask about the availability and methods of evacuation for casualties in mission briefing.

Treatment

Correct treatment of injuries is important not only for Corpsmen, but for Riflemen too. Effective treatment of a minor injury can be the difference between it healing or becoming a more serious injury later on. Regardless of role, all members of a team should know how to do basic treatment.

The treatment options available will depend on the role, equipment and location of the person providing treatment.

Stopping Bleeding

The first priority when dealing with an injury is to stop the bleeding. It is important that a suitable bandage is applied, as using an incorrect bandage will increase the likelihood of the wound reopening. Some wounds, such as Avulsions, may reopen even when treated with the most effective bandages and always require further treatment by a Corpsman. Most wounds will not be healed with a single bandage and care must be taken not to use the best bandages on minor or partial wounds unneccessarily.

The following table shows an indication of the number of wounds a bandage can cover in one go, the approximate amount of time before it will bleed through and reopen, and the chance of it doing so:

Wound Type Elastic Bandage Field Dressing Packing Bandage QuikClot
Wound Cover Reopen Time Reopen Chance Wound Cover Reopen Time Reopen Chance Wound Cover Reopen Time Reopen Chance Wound Cover Reopen Time Reopen Chance
Abrasion +++ ~5m ~20% ++ ~10m 0% ++ ~14m 0% ++ ~24m 0%
Avulsion +++ ~2m 100% ++ ~4m 100% + ~10m ~50% ++ ~18m ~70%
Contusion +++ ~5m 0% + ~10m 0% - ~16m 0% - ~20m 0%
Crush +++ ~5m 0% + ~8m 0% - ~16m 0% - ~20m 0%
Cut +++ ~4m ~80% ++ ~10m ~60% ++ ~14m ~20% +++ ~24m ~40%
Laceration +++ ~3m ~80% + ~8m ~60% + ~12m ~20% ++ ~22m ~40%
Puncture ++ ~2m 100% + ~4m 100% + ~12m ~40% ++ ~20m ~60%
Velocity ++ ~2m 100% + ~2m 100% + ~10m ~60% ++ ~18m ~80%

 

QuikClot will close a wound for a longer time than other bandages, making it useful when medical personnel aren't imminently available.

A tourniquet may also be applied to limbs, stopping the bleeding from serious limbs while proper bandages are applied. They are best used on wounds that are frequently reopening, or when dealing with heavily wounded individuals who will take time to bandage. A tourniquet should be applied immediately to affected limbs, before bandaging any other wounds, to minimize blood loss while bandaging. However, if not removed within a few minutes the tourniquet will lead to massive levels of pain and eventually death.

Tourniquets are only to be used to stop bleeding before bandaging the wounds properly.
Remove tourniquets as soon as a limb is no longer bleeding to avoid increased pain levels.

Checking Vitals

As well as stopping bleeding, a patient’s vitals must be checked. Blood loss and the use of medication, will both affect the heart rate or blood pressure of the patient. The vitals can be checked on either the arms or the head. Only Corpsmen are able to get an accurate vitals reading.

A patient's pulse should be kept within the range of 70 to 90, and blood pressure between 100/60 and 120/80.

Medication

Reducing pain or stabilzing a patients vitals requires the use of medication. There are three types of medication available, depending on role:

  • Morphine is available to Corpsmen only, and is used to reduce heavy pain. As it reduces blood viscosity and cardiac output, morphine should only be given to a patient once and never to a casualty with a low heart rate.
  • Epinephrine is available to Corpsmen only, and is used to increase the heart rate and blood pressure. It should never be given to a patient with a high heart rate or blood pressure. Avoid giving an epinephrine soon after a morphine, as it may not have the desired effect.
  • Adenosine is available to Corpsman only, and is used to decrease the heart rate and blood pressure. Unlike morphine it has no effect on blood viscosity and cardiac output. It is best used for lowering a high heart rate.
Corpsmen should always check vitals before issuing any medication.

Transfusions

Casualties that have lost a lot of a blood may require a transfusion to replenish their blood supply. There are three different types or IV available: blood, plasma and saline. Each of these IV bags is available in three different sizes too: 250ml, 500ml, 1000ml.

Transfusing 250ml of an IV will take around one minute to complete.
Avoid giving patients morphine prior to performing a transfusion, as its effect on blood viscosity will hamper treatment.

Surgery Kits

All Corpsmen carry a Surgery Kit, which is used to permanently heal bandaged wounds and prevent them from reopening. The Surgery Kit is only available for use in designated medical buildings or vehicles, and may be used an infinite number of times. Some factions include a backpack carried Aid Station, that can be deployed inside any building and use for performing surgery on casualties.

Medical personnel should enquire at mission briefing about the availability of designated medical buildings and vehicles.

Training Videos

Our YouTube channel features two training videos on using the medical system: